Article abstract: Introduction: Factors influencing diabetes prevalence and dysfunction of β- cells are not fully understood. In this study, we studied the effect of acute and long-term exercise training on β-cell function and on insulin sensitivity in diabetic patients.
Methods: In this interventional study a total of 30 adult men with type 2 diabetes with mean age of 43 years were randomly assigned into the experimental group (exercise) or control group (detraining). Blood glucose, insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function were measured in fasting (overnight fast), immediately after an acute submaximal exercise and after a three month aerobic exercise in the experimental group. These variables also were measured in the control group at the same times. Anthropometrical indexes also were measured before and after study in all patients. A repeated measure ANOVA was used to analyze the data.
Results: Fasting glucose decreased and beta-cell function increased significantly in responses to acute and long-time exercise in experimental group (P<0.05). In addition, there was no significant change in insulin sensitivity in response to acute exercise (P≥0.05), but increased significantly after long exercise training (P<0.05). All variables remained without change in control group.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that decrease in blood glucose concentration after exercise training in diabetic patients is due to improving in insulin sensitivity and beta cell function in these patients.